Mane was involved in a clash of heads with Cape Verde goalkeeper Vozinha early during the second half of the last-16 tie in Bafoussam.
Following treatment for the mid-air collision in the 53rd minute when chasing a long ball upfield, Mane was allowed to continue while Vozinha, shown a red card for the foul, was carried off the pitch on a stretcher and reported to have been taken to hospital.
Mane went on to break the deadlock in the 63rd minute, clipping the ball in off the underside of the crossbar after it fell to him at the back post from a corner.
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There was a lengthy VAR review of a possible foul before the goal was confirmed, after which Mane dropped onto the pitch holding his head before eventually being helped off and substituted.
Senegal made sure of progress when Bamba Dieng scored a second on the counter attack during stoppage time.
It remains to be seen whether Mane will be able to feature for the Lions of Teranga in the quarter-final on Sunday against either Mali or Equatorial Guinea.
Before kick-off, there was a minute’s silence in respect of those who died or were injured in the crush at the Paul Biya Stadium in Olembe on Monday night ahead of Cameroon’s last-16 tie with Comoros.
Cape Verde had been reduced to 10 men after just 21 minutes when midfielder Patrick Andrade was sent off for treading on Pape Gueye’s ankle after the referee reviewed the incident on the pitchside monitor having initially shown a yellow card.