The Patriots also signed running back Kenjon Barner. The moves come a day after the team waived Riley McCarron, who fumbled a punt in the opener on Sunday.
Coleman, a first-round pick out of Baylor drafted 15th overall by the Cleveland Browns in 2016, was traded during training camp to the Buffalo Bills. He did not make the final roster and went unclaimed on waivers.
Coleman worked out for the Patriots on Monday and was scheduled to visit the Philadelphia Eagles, who made a flurry of moves at wide receiver and hosted former Baltimore Ravens first-round pick Breshad Perriman.
Coleman, 24, played in 19 games with the Browns but injuries became a detriment.
He has 56 career receptions for 718 yards and five touchdowns.
New England began the season with Julian Edelman suspended. Chris Hogan played 91 percent of offensive plays Sunday against the Houston Texans, and Phillip Dorsett was on the field for 76 percent of New England's offensive snaps. But Cordarrelle Patterson (16 plays) and McCarron (15) rotated through and made little impact as the third and fourth receivers.
Fowler, 27, has special teams experience. He also has 56 career receptions with five touchdowns.
The Michigan State product spent his first three seasons in the NFL with the Denver Broncos.
Barner, 28, was a sixth-round pick by the Panthers in 2013 and returned to Carolina for training camp this year. He spent the last three seasons with the Eagles, where he totaled 310 rushing yards and three touchdowns on 71 attempts across 36 games (one start).
--Field Level Media